Here are the powerpoint slides from Tuesday’s class on The Invention of Tradition.

You may want to further peruse Hobsbawn & Ranger’s book on google books – the library’s copies are already on loan.   There were also two other sources mentioned in class that you should follow up:  Maurice Halbwach’s On Collective Memory and an article on ANZAC Day from the NZ History website.

If you want to explore more media on ANZAC Day, Colin James’ article takes a look at the changing meaning surrounding ANZAC Day and the relationship it has with Waitangi Day.


The Telegraph has a photo feature entitled The World’s Weirdest Festivals, including the Boryeong Mud Festival in South Korea and the Wife Carrying World Championships in Finland. 

The world's weirdest festivals

The world's weirdest festivals

Keep in mind that these festivals will be as unexotic to these participants as ANZAC Day is to us.

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Poofters Taking the Piss out of Anzacs: The (Un-)Australian Wit of Sydney’s Gay and Lesbian Mardi Gras.  Morton, John 2008 Anthropological Forum vol 18(3).

Find the article here.


As an annual event, Sydney’s Gay and Lesbian Mardi Gras has a key place in the Australian national calendar. Following leads from Gabrielle Carey (1995) and Fiona Nicoll (2001), this paper explores the meaning of Mardi Gras in relation to Australia’s premier ritual event, Anzac Day. It is argued that Mardi Gras and Anzac Day are formally related to an older pairing of Carnival and Easter, and are related to each other as sin is to redemption. However, I show that, because of certain (homophobic) flaws in the configuration of the Anzac legend, the comedic counterpoint of Mardi Gras can itself be elevated to the status of the sacred, giving rise to inherent instability in the symbolic economy of the Australian nation state. After considering a number of examples of Mardi Gras’s transgressive (‘Un-Australian’) humour, I conclude with a general reflection on jokes in Australian ritual politics, particularly in regard to the ‘subject positions’ of those who might inappropriately analyse these politics from a perspective that privileges essentialist notions of opposition and resistance.

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Hope you are all having a great Easter break – and that your assignments are going well 🙂

Our week was cut short by the holidays, so ANZAC Day dominated the discussion.

While you are working on your ANZAC assignments, keep a few things in mind . In class we discussed the relationship between structuring forces in society & culture and individual agency. Emamber has a blog post that is pertinent to the balance between the two – and relates well to an issue that has arisen regarding your approach to the assignment.   Emamber is writing about Geertz’s thick description and says he

…places a lot of emphasis on culture being defined as public meanings, not just individual and personal meanings. Particular actions can be so personal and meaningful to an individual but to the public may mean absolutely nothing.

Many of you have posted about ANZAC day and your ideas for your assignment.  There has been a lot of attention to sacrifice, remembrance and the emotions that emerge throughout the course of ANZAC day.  You’re correct to note that the emotional side of the experience is important, but don’t get drawn into talking at length about your own emotions.  The focus should be on the public meanings, not the personal meanings.  Most New Zealanders have a personal history or story intertwined with ANZAC day, but this isn’t what the assignment is about.  The important thing for this assignment is to think beyond the level of the individual – think about groups (NZ as a nation or a particular group within NZ, for example) and the role of shared or public meaning in ANZAC day as a political ritual.  So, just remember to keep your focus on the social, the cultural, the shared, the public.

And while we’re on the subject of ANZAC Day, two posts provide useful links & info, while Alison71 writes about finding her great-grandfather’s war journals and another blogger posts a quick history of the ANZAC biscuit and her assignment ideas.  Also, ANZAC Day and the notion of a New Zealand identity gets discussed along with the role of parades, complete with video.

Here is the handout to accompany the film we watched, DNZ: Our Day to Remember.  You can find the dvd in the library if you want to view it again.

First up, you can view your ANZAC assignment on this blog here

Political ritual has been the focus for this week.  Through this framework, we’ve engaged with ideas of power and performance.  On Tuesday we looked at what constitutes a political ritual and how it can differ from a  public ritual such as Palio or Carnival.

Here’s what we came up with: Political rituals…

  • are routinised and orderly – the audience and participants will know exactly what to expect
  • are officially sanctioned and scheduled
  • aim for notions of solidarity, collectivity and unity in action and understanding
  • use public symbols to convey messages
  • create social history by cementing an event and its representation into the social fabric and collective memory
  • reiterate the significance of the event that is being celebrated to the wider society

The powerpoint slide from Tuesday’s class have already been posted on the blog.  Specific points in the slideshow were illustrated with youtube videos.  We saw clips of the Mass Games in North Korea as an example of using excessive displays of wealth, mass approval and material resources in order to demonstrate the productive fit between current leadership and the ‘rightness’ of life.  We also saw imagery and motifs of military might representing the strength of the nation and a focus on the collective rather than individuals – a focus on Kim Jong-il was the exception to this.  Two clips on the swearing in of the newest King of Tonga contextualised this specific political ritual and its displays of power within the current social and political climate in Tonga.  We also saw a short clip of Obama taking the Oath of Office to illustrate the how crucial order, ceremony and etiquette are in enacting the change that the ritual is supposed to bring about.  Since the Oath was initially recited incorrectly, Obama later asked the Chief Justice to come to the Oval Office and repeat the ritual to ensure that there was no uncertainty surrounding him taking over the Presidency.

On Friday we discussed performance and Victor Turner’s social drama approach.  The emphasis on performance is an emphasis on what rituals do.  Using a performative approach provides us with a language to talk about action.  It also situates the people involved in ritual as actors – they are now active agents, not just passive recipients.

Turner sees people and culture in continuous flux and transformation – so his approach to studying these is one that accounts for everything in social life to be in movement – he believes there is a strain towards order, but we don’t achieve it and anthropology needs to take the reality of chaos and disagreement into account –  he pulls from Sally F. Moore: “established rules, customs, and symbolic frameworks exist, but they operate in the presence of areas of indeterminacy, of ambiguity, of uncertainty and manipulability.  Order never fully takes over, not could it.”  Culture isn’t a fully articulated system or set of symbolic codes- it is changing, evolving, and indeterminate.  Turner thinks too much emphasis has been placed on fit, harmony & congruence in ritual studies – too functionalist.   Using the social drama as a unit of analysis will illuminate the complex relationship between the fact of social life and its representation

In social dramas Turner begins with disharmonious moments – these are large scale arguments, combats, or even rites of passage.  It is a process driven model, more interested in staging, plot, movement, change & commentary than a the structure of the event (however, Turner does lay out a structure for social dramas).   The term social drama emerges for two main reasons – 1 -Turner relies on theatrical terminology to make his point – 2- he is talking about events that are “inherently dramatic because participants not only do things, they try to show others what they are doing or have done – in other words, actions take on a performed quality

Turner calls social dramas “an eruption from the level surface of ongoing social life” and structures them into four stages: breach, crisis, redressive action (schism).  In The Anthropology of Performance, Turner elabourates:  1- Breach of regular norm-governed social relations; 2- Crisis, during which there is a tendency for the breach to widen.  Each public crisis has what I now call liminal characteristics, since it is a threshold (limen) between more or less stable phases of the social process, but it is not usually a sacred limen, hedged around by taboos and thrust away from the centers of public life.  On the contrary, it takes up its menacing stance in the forum itself, and as it were, dares the representatives of order to grapple with it; 3- Redressive action ranging from personal advice and informal mediation or arbitration to formal juridical and legal machinery, and, to resolve certain kinds of crisis or legitimate other modes of resolution, to the performance of public ritual.  Redress,too, has its liminal features, for it is “betwixt and between”, and as such, furnishes a distanced replication and critique of the events leading up to and composing the ‘crisis’.  This replication may be in the rational idiom of the judicial process, or in the metaphorical and symbolic idiom of a ritual process; 4- The final phase consists either of the reintegration of the disturbed social group, or of the social recognition and legitimation of irreparable schism between the contesting parties.

We also discussed Kertzer’s idea that rituals themselves are a field of political struggle, as opposed to rituals simply being a vehicle to communicate the results of a political struggle – think about the political campaign season compared to an inauguration, for example.

We continued with Kertzer’s Rite Makes Might idea and discussed mass rallies and public demonstrations or protests – ex: G20 protests.    Symbolism and symbolic behaviour is at the forefront here – there are obviously competing symbolic systems involved – we’ve talked about power and performance and the way rituals/rites make convincing arguments about the way the world works and who is in charge – but people don’t automatically buy into these systems and beliefs – When you think about rituals and power you need to consider the balance between structuring forces and agency.

Books, articles and authors that came up in class this week

Irving Goffman – The Presentation of Self in Everyday Life

Victor Turner – Dramas, Fields & Metaphors -Also,  The Anthropology of Performance

David Kertzer – Ritual, Politics & Power

Jeffrey C Alexander – Cultural Pragmatics –  Also, From the Depths of Despair